Open Visitation In General
This article explores issues of family-centered care and visits in the open environment of adult intensive care and is divided into three sections. The first section reviews the empirical and theoretical studies on family visits and critical views on the use of open visitation policies in the ICU. The second part examines the attitudes of nurses liberalized visit. The final section seeks consensus on a policy of visiting model. The importance of family-centered care is confirmed, giving a challenge to the status quo of rigid political visit to the ICU.
Have been aligned to move more targeted approach to adult family care unit (ICU). A growing number of studies strongly suggest the presence of family members of the bed is to facilitate the healing process and can help reduce the length of patient stay. support groups for patients with regard to visitation rights as an indispensable part of the family and the patient’s comfort. The family members of critically ill patients want access to free loved ones in the ICU, and often sees this as a “right”. With the emphasis on patient satisfaction with health care, hospitals, nurses believe that a more liberalized visiting in ICUs as a way to improve relations with customers (Roland, Russell, Richards, & Sullivan, 2001 ).
Visit free adult critical care units, however, remains a controversial issue, especially with nurses. Some nurses in the ICU are very resistant to the liberal policies of access, due to possible changes in the physiological condition of the patient, interference with patient care and increased care errors because of interruptions and distractions by members of family. Nurses care units are the gatekeepers, monitoring visits to protect patients against stress and infection, and promote relaxation (Ramsey, Cathelyn, Gugliotta, and Glenn, 2000). Discussion points are the amount of time available and the frequency of visits, which is authorized to visit, and the number of people admitted to the bedside at one time (Brinker, 2002).
Visitation and intensive care units is based on practices developed in the intensive care unit in 1965. At that time, the Department of Public Health recommends a visit to the ICU is limited to family members for a short period only. Since then, many health workers have maintained the negative impact of the patient visit. In the penalty resulting in a restrictive policy was based on tradition and prefer to caregivers, and no evidence in support of research (Roland et al., 2001).
Family members are very important for the recovery of patients’. Contrary to tradition, the literature supports the family, the presence of intensive care in a soothing and calming to the patient (Berwick, 2004). Hospital patients are treated as visits to relatives and close friends to show love and care (Gonzalez, Carroll, Elliott, Fitzgerald, and Vallent, 2004). Patients with loved ones to bed and intensive care units suffer fewer hallucinations and less anxiety (Takman & Severinsson, 2003, Sullivan, 2001). visiting family is related to maintaining or enhancing the physiological responses of patients’.
Kleman et al. (1993), in a study of 48 patients with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI), concluded that no significant change in mean cardiovascular parameters before, during or after family visits. Schulte et al. (1993) found no significant differences in heart rate or the incidence of ectopic pregnancy between groups of patients who visit family restricted and unrestricted. Lazure and Baun (1995) have less fluctuation of vital signs in the patient-controlled traffic that visits supervised by nursing staff. Simpson (1991) found that family visits were no more stressful than a 10-minute interview during the measurement of cardiovascular responses. In fact, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly during family visits.
As shown Geising Medical Center, it is possible to integrate a family and a successful policy of open access to the culture of intensive care. Visitation policies should be transformed into guidelines visit covering all patients are considered “family.” Meet the needs of family members of patients is a major responsibility in resuscitation.
It is the role of the nurse as holistic caregivers to attend to the family and patient. In the paradigm of family-centered care, patients are no longer considered in isolation but as part of their normal family system. Health workers, no family, visitors are real in the lives of patients. The serious illness of a family member is not an isolated event but rather a stressful event heavily on a dynamic continuum that includes both the past and the future of the family. This shift strengthens the defense lines of the family and helps heal patients. When family needs are met, anxiety, anger and hostility decrease. Visitation is a necessary, expected and welcome the patient and family well-being.
Nurses need support to change beliefs and attitudes, and is trained in relation to a tour of the myths and the need to establish a research visit protocals. Including the families of intensive care environment can be difficult, but is also a challenge worth pursuing.